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Ngugi wa Thiong'o est né en 1938.

Nom de naissance : James Ngugi.

Il est actuellement professeur et directeur de l'International Center for Writing & Translation à l'Université de Californie à Irvine.

Figure dominante de la littérature des années Moi, il a très tôt adopté des positions radicales sur la "politique néocoloniale de l'establishment kenyan". À partir de 1967, il enseigne successivement au Kenya et en Ouganda. En 1971, il publie un premier recueil d'essais, Rentrer chez soi. Puis, tout en travaillant à sa chronique Pétales de sang (1977, traduite en français), l'écrivain "afro-saxon", comme il se définit, se consacre au théâtre avec Le Procès de Dedan Kimathi (1975) et Ngaahika Ndeenda (1977), "Je me marierai quand je voudrai"). Cette dernière pièce, jouée en kikuyu devant un public populaire de plus en plus large, dérange les hautes sphères du pouvoir. Ngugi est arrêté en décembre 1977.

Il passera un an en prison et ce séjour radicalise cet auteur marxisant, qui adopte un ton de plus en plus critique envers le gouvernement. Il réécrit en kikuyu Caithani Matharaba-ini ("Le Diable sur la croix) rédigé en prison dans les marges de sa Bible et sur du papier toilette. Sa pièce suivante, Maitu Njugira (1982) est interdite, et le théâtre où elle devait être jouée, rasé. La tentative de coup d'État de 1982 surprend Ngugi en Europe ; il ne rentrera pas au pays. Pour décoloniser l'esprit, est son adieu à l'écriture en anglais - depuis lors, il écrit ses romans uniquement en sa langue maternelle, kikuyu (et de cette langue ils sont traduits en anglais, swahili, et autres).

Exilé à Londres, puis en Californie, professeur à l'université de New York, Ngugi wa Thiong'o continue de publier régulièrement pièces et essais, jusqu'à ce dernier livre, Murogi wa Kagogo lancé en 2004 à Nairobi au moment où il décide de rentrer d'exil. "Nous avons beaucoup parlé de l'exil politique/[...]/Ta douce figure m'a rappelé notre terre natale/Ma maison à Limuru et la tienne à Mang'u/Un jour nous rentrerons chez nous/Et nous parlerons notre propre langue." Ainsi s'exprimait Ngugi wa Thiong'o, dans le poème "Kuri Njeeri" qu'il avait dédié à sa femme.

Murogi wa Kagogo, qui veut dire en effet "sorcier du corbeau" est le livre le plus long jamais composé dans une langue de l'Afrique sub-sahariènne.

Les années d'exil ont érodé la gloire de l'écrivain, peu enseigné dans les écoles kenyanes, critiqué pour ses engagements "à distance" tandis que d'autres, sur place, continuaient de se battre parfois au péril de leur vie.



Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.




Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o signs copies of his new book Wizard of the Crow. In London at the Congress Centre in central London. A first book in 20 years following 22 years of exile due to his highly political work (including the bestselling novel Petals of Blood).Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o (born January 5, 1938) is a Kenyan author, formerly working in English and now working in Gĩkũyũ. His work includes novels, plays, short stories, essays and scholarship, criticism and children's literature. He is the founder and editor of the Gikuyu-language journal, Mutiiri. Ngugi went into self-imposed exile following his release from a Kenyan prison in 1977; living in the United States, he taught at Yale University for some years, and since has also taught at New York University, where he was Erich Maria Remarque Professor of Languages, with a dual professorship in Comparative Literature and Performance Studies, and the University of California, Irvine.

Ngũgĩ was born in Kamiriithu, near Limuru in Kiambu district, of Kĩkũyũ descent, and baptised James Ngugi. His family was caught up in the Mau Mau rebellion; he lost his stepbrother, and his mother was tortured. While attending mission school, he became a devout Christian. He received a B.A. in English from Makerere University College in Kampala, Uganda, in 1963; during his education, a play of his, The Black Hermit, was produced in Kampala in 1962.

He published his first novel, Weep Not, Child, in 1964, which he wrote while attending the University of Leeds in England. It was the first novel in English to be published by an East African. His second novel, The River Between (1965), has as its background the Mau Mau rebellion, and described an unhappy romance between Christians and non-Christians.

His novel A Grain of Wheat (1967) marked his embrace of Fanonist Marxism. He subsequently renounced English, Christianity, and the name James Ngugi as colonialist; he changed his name to Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o, and began to write in his native Gĩkũyũ and Swahili. The uncensored political message of his 1977 play Ngaahika Ndeenda (I Will Marry When I Want) provoked then Vice President Daniel arap Moi to order his arrest. While detained in the Kamiti Maximum Security Prison, he wrote the first modern novel in Gĩkũyũ, Caitaani mũtharaba-Inĩ (Devil on the Cross), on prison-issued toilet paper.

After his release, he was not reinstated to his job as professor at Nairobi University, and his family was harassed. He left Kenya on June 5, 1982, to live in self-imposed exile in London.

His later works include Detained, his prison diary (1981), Decolonizing the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature (1986), an essay arguing for African writers' expression in their native languages, rather than European languages, in order to renounce lingering colonial ties and to build an authentic African literature, and Matigari (1987), one of his most famous works, a satire based on a Gĩkũyũ folktale.

In 1992 he became a professor of Comparative Literature and Performance Studies at New York University, where he held the Erich Maria Remarque Chair. He is currently a Distinguished Professor of English and Comparative Literature as well as the Director of the Center for Writing and Translation at the University of California, Irvine.

On August 8, 2004, Ngũgĩ ended his exile to return to Kenya as part of a month-long tour of East Africa. On August 11, robbers broke into his apartment: they stole money and a computer, brutalised the professor, and raped his wife.[1] Since then, Ngũgĩ has returned to America, and in the summer 2006 the American publishing firm Random House published his first new novel in nearly two decades, Wizard of the Crow, translated to English from Gĩkũyũ by the author.

On November 10, 2006, while in San Francisco at Hotel Vitale at the Embarcadero, Prof. Thiong'o was harassed and ordered to leave the hotel by an employee. The event led to a public outcry which angered the Kenyan community in the San Francisco Bay area [2], and prompted an apology by the hotel[3].


[edit] References
^ "The Outsider: an interview with Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o", The Guardian, 2006-01-26.
^ "US Hotel Staffer Kicks Out Author", Nairobi Standard, 2006-11-18.
^ "The Hotel Responds to the Racist Treatment of Professor Ngugi Wa Thiong'o", Africa Resource, 2006-11-10.

[edit] Bibliography
The Black Hermit, 1963 (play)
Weep Not, Child, 1964, Heinemann 1987, McMillan 2005, ISBN 1-4050-7331-4
The River Between, Heinemann 1965, Heinemann 1989, ISBN 0-435-90548-1
A Grain of Wheat, 1967 (1992) ISBN 0-14-118699-2
This Time Tomorrow (three plays, including the title play, "The Reels," and "The Wound in the Heart"), c. 1970
Homecoming: Essays on African and Caribbean Literature, Culture, and Politics, Heinemann 1972, ISBN 0-435-18580-2
A meeting in the dark (1974)
Secret Lives, and Other Stories, 1976, Heinemann 1992 ISBN 0-435-90975-4
The Trial of Dedan Kimathi, 1976, ISBN 0-435-90191-5, African Publishing Group, ISBN 0-949932-45-0 (with Micere Githae Mugo)
Ngaahika ndeenda: Ithaako ria ngerekano (I Will Marry When I Want), 1977 (play; with Ngugi wa Mirii), Heinemann Educational Books (1980)
Petals of Blood, (1977) Penguin 2002, ISBN 0-14-118702-6
Caitaani mutharaba-Ini (Devil on the Cross), 1980
Writers in Politics: Essays, 1981
Education for a National Culture, 1981
Detained: A Writer's Prison Diary, 1981
Barrel of a Pen: Resistance to Repression in Neo-Colonial Kenya, 1983
Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature, 1986
Mother, Sing For Me, 1986
Writing against Neo-Colonialism, 1986
Njamba Nene and the Flying Bus (Njamba Nene na Mbaathi i Mathagu), 1986 (children's book)
Matigari ma Njiruungi, 1986
Devil on the Cross (English translation of Caitaani mutharaba-Ini), Heinemann, 1987, ISBN 0-435-90844-8
Njamba Nene and the Cruel Chief (Njamba Nene na Chibu King'ang'i), 1988 (children's book)
Matigari, (translated into English by Wangui wa Goro), Heinemann 1989, Africa World Press 1994, ISBN 0-435-90546-5
Njamba Nene's Pistol (Bathitoora ya Njamba Nene), (children's book), 1990, Africa World Press, ISBN 0-86543-081-0
Moving the Centre: The Struggle for Cultural Freedom, Heinemann, 1993, ISBN 0-435-08079-2
Penpoints, Gunpoints and Dreams: The Performance of Literature and Power in Post-Colonial Africa, (The Clarendon Lectures in English Literature 1996), Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-818390-9
Mũrogi was Kagogo (Wizard of the Crow), 2004, East African Educational Publishers, ISBN 9966-25-162-6
Wizard of the Crow, 2006, Secker, ISBN 1-84655-034-3


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Find biographies with the links below:

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[http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ngugi_wa_Thiong%27o]

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ng%C5%A9g%C4%A9_wa_Thiong%27o]

films

Long métrage | 2006 Who's Afraid of Ngugi? (Qui a peur de Ngugi Wa Thiong'O ?) Le film suit Ngugi Wa Thiongo lors de son voyage au Kenya avec sa femme Njeeri après un exil prolongé. Ngugi Wa Thiong'o est associé(e) à ce film en tant que acteur/trice
Long métrage | 1993 Sembene Ousmane : The making of African Cinema Ce riche documentaire suit le légendaire cinéaste sénégalais Sembène Ousmane depuis le Festival Panafricain du cinéma de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso j [...](K'a Yéléma Productions) Ngugi Wa Thiong'o est associé(e) à ce film en tant que réalisateur/trice

livres

document | 2011 Quand l'Afrique réplique L'African Writers Series (la collection "African Writers") de la maison d'édition britannique Heinemann a joué en anglais un rôle équivalent à celui d [...](Harmattan (L')) Ngugi Wa Thiong'o est associé(e) à ce livre en tant que personne concernée